Before 1840, nearly all the world’s wallpaper came from France, where it was hand-printed, using blocks and sheets of paper to produce a limited line of patterns. Making wallpaper by hand was a costly process, and only the very wealthy could afford to buy it.
Although France dominated the decorative arts, England possessed superior industrial technology and, in 1837, the world’s first wallpaper machine was patented in England. This machine, which resembled a Ferris wheel, was a combination of rollers, stencils and brushes that could apply as many as 24 colours to a continuous roll of paper.
A less costly paper-making process was also developed, replacing expensive linen and cotton rags that comprised the paper with straw and wood pulp. Overnight, the cost of wallpaper plummeted. By the end of the 19th century, wallpapers were selling for less than one-half the price they had commanded 50 years earlier.
Early 19th century
In the early 19th century patterns copied traditional French designs, including scroll patterns and realistic looking flowers and foliage. Among the most popular designs were large, open roses – so early French-inspired patterns were often referred to as ‘cabbage rose’ designs. In the manner of trompe d’oeil, many patterns were elaborately shaded to resemble curtains, carvings, masonry, columns and arches.
With mass-produced wallpapers, Britain became a trendsetter in wallpaper styles and imported many patterns to the United States. France’s aid to the south during the American Civil War further prompted northerners especially to look to England for wallpaper fashion,
Whereas earlier wallpaper patterns used vertical boundaries; delineated by stripes, fake columns, rows of flowers, etc. to break up wall space. English patterns used a coordinated set of companion papers to divide the wall horizontally:
- a wide frieze at cornice level
- a dado in the lower portion of the wall (usually about one metre high)
- centre fill or screen portion
Paper manufacturers also supplied narrow border papers in rooms that had no chair railings or picture mouldings.
The development of affordable wallpapers coincided with the young middle class’s hunger for anything that gave the semblance of wealth and culture. Wallpaper had traditionally been the hallmark of affluence. This created in the 1870’s and 1880s, an absolute wallpaper mania. Virtually every room in every house was wallpapered. Companies issued new patterns each season, and some homeowners changed wallpaper annually.
Wallpaper became a sign of domesticity; in a new settlement, it was one of the few items that a general store would stock. Some stores boasted that having as many as 150 patterns in stock and 250 or so more they could order.
Much of the middle-class wallpaper trade occurred thought mail order. Catalogue advertisements, usually printed in black and white, gave a list of available colours and guaranteed that standard papers would coordinate. Unfortunately, many of these mail order papers were hideous, and for every tasteful treatment that graced walls and ceilings of middle and upper-class homes, there were five distasteful ones.
A fad for copper developed during the 1870s, and copper, gilt and mica highlights, especially on frieze papers, were typical. When treated with metallics, papers were usually embossed so they would shine viewed from any direction.
At the height of the wallpaper craze, someone discovered that two shades of green wallpaper contained arsenic, which was subsequently blamed for a host of illnesses and even deaths. Controversy arose over whether arsenic poisoning could occur by merely sitting or dining in a room with green paper and whether other colours might cause poisoning as well. Wallpaper manufacturers quickly removed the culprit green tones from the market and ran advertisements insisting that their papers were “nonarsenical.”
As germ consciousness expanded at the end of the century, papers were printed with oil-based, non-water-soluble paints that were advertised as scrubbable or sanitary.
The upper-class continued to use fabrics as wallcoverings, so wallpapers continued to imitate damasks, silks velvets were developed. Ultra-thin veneers were glued to individual papers that, after installation were varnished to resemble wood.
Imitation leather wallpapers also came on the market. One of the most popular and authentic-looking of these was leather paper which was made using a process which originated in Japan: the heavy paper stock was embossed while still wet, then often pounded with hammers, then glued to a cloth or waterproof backing.
Frederick Walton and William Morris
Frederick Walton and Englishman instrumental in the development of linoleum, introduced in 1877 the ultimate in imitations – Lincrusta-Walton. Lincrusta could be made to appear like carved wood, embossed leather, or plaster. It was painted, highlighted with metallics, grained or varnished. It was nearly indistinguishable from the real thing.
Lincrusta-Walton was so popular that many companies manufactured imitation Lincrusta. These, which were made of everything from cork to rubber to wood fibre included Anaglypta, Corticine, Salamander, and Lignomur.
Catalogue of Designs of Lincrusta-Walton: Manufactured by Fr. Beck and Co., Branch of National Wall Paper Co., Seventh Ave. and 29th St., New York City (Classic Reprint) [Company, Fr Beck and] on Amazon.com.au. *FREE* shipping on eligible orders. Catalogue of Designs of Lincrusta-Walton: Manufactured by Fr.
During the 1880s, the Aesthetic movement, which had been brewing in England for several decades came to the fashion forefront. William Morris, one of the movement’s principal spokespersons, believed that the Aesthetic tenets (use of natural and simple designs and materials) could be presented to the masses through the fashions of the time – specifically, through the wallpaper industry.
Morris designed many popular papers that incorporated Aesthetic principles: simple designs, with flat, unshaded appearances. Many of Morris’s designs are wild drawn on spiral axes; some suggest that they were the product of opium dreams. Morris became extremely successful, and his papers became too expensive for the middle class he sought to educate.
Other famous wallpaper designers of the Aesthetic movement included
- Walter Crane, a children’s book illustrator who designed (among different patterns) a series of nursery rhyme wallpapers for children’s rooms;
- C.F.A Voysey, whose work was characterised by blocks of “Voysey birds;”
- Christopher Dresser, a trained botanist, whose papers presaged the Art Deco era would occur 80 years after his time; and
- Louis Comfort Tiffany of stained glass fame.
Although many persons, especially Americans, kept buying traditional three-dimensional appearing “cabbage rose” wallpapers, gradually tastes began to change on both sides of the Atlantic. By the late 1890s, the Aesthetic principle shade became well-entrenched in the wallpaper industry.
Starting in the 1890s, in Queen Anne houses, natural wood dados began to replace dado wallpapers. Ornate wallpaper combinations lost favour, too, because they were incompatible with the newer, more rustic house styles (Craftsman, bungalow) that evolved. Frieze papers, however, were combined successfully with the natural wood treatments of later styles, and children’s papers, many of them patterned after Cranes’ designs, became immensely popular at the turn of the century.
World War 1 rang the death knell for the wallpaper dynasty. Shortages of raw materials drove production costs sky-high, forcing smaller companies out of business or into the hands of large conglomerates. Since that time, wallpaper has not regained its prominence in interior decoration.
William Morris’s Flowers
by Rowan Bain
A passionate advocate of craftsmanship over mass-production, William Morris (1834- 1896) designed a huge variety of objects, but it is his highly original carpet, fabric and wallpaper patterns that have continued to capture the imagination and exert their influence on the decorative arts. Around 600 such designs are attributed to Morris, of which the vast majority are based on natural forms, including trees, plants and flowers.
This beautifully designed, accessibly priced gift book offers a wealth of designs by Morris in which flowers are the principal motif, bringing together not only completed patterns but also working drawings in pen and watercolour, and examples of his pearwood, floral-pattern printing blocks.