Gruppo 9999 Italian Architecture and Design Group

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For S-SPACE, THE Mondial Festival N. 1, “VITA, MORTE E MIRACOLI DELL’ARCHITETTURA,” IN 1971, Featured a vegetable garden
For S-SPACE, THE Mondial Festival N. 1, “VITA, MORTE E MIRACOLI DELL’ARCHITETTURA,” IN 1971, Featured a vegetable garden

Gruppo 9999 was a group of radical architects founded in Florence in 1968 by Giorgio Birelli, Carlo Caldini, Fabrizio Fiumi and Paolo Galli. Paolo Coggiola, Andrea Gigli, Mario Preti, and Giovanni Sani eventually joined them. It was in operation until 1972.

Its members staged a ‘design happening’ on Florence’s Ponte Vecchio in 1968. The interior environment for the 1969 Space Electronic discotheque, Florence, was another of its projects. In 1972, the group organised the seminar’ S-S-Space World Festival no. 1′ on conceptual and behavioural architecture, attended by Italian and foreign participants at the big dance hall that the organisation operated in Florence. It published the book Memories of Architecture in 1973. 

The 9999 Group condemned the misuse of the mass media and the false goals of the economic-political run-up, attentive only to the logic of the market and consumption, promoting an ecological movement where each of their design activities contained an ethical message. They launched a proclamation which, in addition, highlighted the group’s philosophy, aimed to outline a specific life model and spread it.


Byars, M., & Riley, T. (2004). The design encyclopedia. Laurence King Publishing.

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