Kramer’s father was the owner of the most well-known of Frankfurt hat shops. In 1916, immediately after school, Kramer was drawn into military service and remained a soldier through the end of the First World War. The following year he trained at the Bauhaus for a few months before quitting, disillusioned with the technical level of the training, then began a three-year architectural study in Munich with Theodor Fischer.
The universal typeface, 1925, was a geometric alphabet based on bar and circle and was designed by Herbert Bayer (1900) to function efficiently in a technological society. Bayer rejected the “archaic and complicated gothic alphabet” which lingered in the most scientifically advanced society of its time, Germany of the first world war period and the postwar era.
Leven studied at the Kunstgewerbeschule and then at the Düsseldorf Art Academy. He worked in his father Louis Leven’s studio for a time, had numerous contacts with French artists who had a strong influence on him, and quickly became known. Engelbert Kayser hired him as the first employee in his studio. From 1895 to 1904, Leven designed numerous models for Kayserzinn; his works had a lasting influence on the Art Nouveau pewter foundry. He also worked for the Kreuter company in Hanau and other companies that manufactured metal, silver and earthenware, such as B. Koch & Bergfeld and WMF.
The outbreak of the Second World War created significant difficulties during the early stages of restoration, leading to the closure of the NKA (Contemporary Products Department), but by the early 1950s, the company was back on track. Many of Wilhelm Wagenfeld’s WMF creations date from these years.
The way Dieter Rams tell it good design boils down to something as simple durability.
Okay, not durability alone. A Well-designed piece is so self-explanatory that figuring out how to use it as simple as looking at it. And a design develops from the inside out because it involves not only aesthetics but also function.
Braun’s archive can be seen as a sort of manifesto for meticulous design: from screw-shape to ergonomic button placement, nothing is forgotten. Reduced to their logical conclusion, Braun products are unmatched in their timelessness, the only sign of their age being the electronics within.
In New York City, Bach planned the remodelling of Sach’s and the Seneca Textile Building. His work was shown at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in early contemporary industrial art shows. In Stamford, Connecticut, he created his own home in 1938. He oversaw the construction of the Ridgeway Center, one of the country’s earliest shopping malls. In the 1930s, Bach designed tubular steel furniture for the Lloyd Manufacturing Company. Until 1947, they continued to produce his works. These tubular objects are seen to constitute a link between Bauhaus and contemporary design. In 1959, he relocated to Florida. In Delray Beach, he designed the Palm Trail Plaza and the Palm Trail Yacht Club. In 1969, he was the curator of the United States display at the International Industrial Design Exhibition. He created designs for GE, Keystone Silver, Pacific Mills, and Bigelow-Samford. He was the American Designers Institute’s president.