The universal typeface, 1925, was a geometric alphabet based on bar and circle and was designed by Herbert Bayer (1900) to function efficiently in a technological society. Bayer rejected the “archaic and complicated gothic alphabet” which lingered in the most scientifically advanced society of its time, Germany of the first world war period and the postwar era.
He began painting on glass at a young age and worked as a stained glass artist in Munich. He worked in many workshops in Paris starting in 1919, including Jacques Gruber’s. He saw that electric illumination was nothing more than a transformation of oil lamps and candlesticks. He made his first lamps in the style of Romanesque church windows.
Birgit Jürgenssen works with constellations and interactions influenced by gender-specific projections, physicality, and identification. Her affiliation in the feminist-oriented group DIE DAMEN (with Evelyne Egerer, Birgit Jürgenssen, ONA B., Ingeborg Strobl, and Lawrence Weiner) aided her in placing her objects between everyday life and role play.
Werkstätten Hagenauer were Vienna-based Austrian metalsmiths. Over its nearly ninety-year history, it was a family business in Vienna that produced fine, handcrafted objects for decoration and use. The workshop closed in 1987, but the company’s retail premises on Vienna’s Opernring, which opened in 1938, is still open today as a museum and shop.
Pollack invented a tubular steel stacking chair, model RP7, which was manufactured from c1932 and revolutionised auditorium seating with its stacking concept. Cox, a British furniture maker, was embroiled in a legal battle with rival Pel in 1934 over the Rp6 stacking chair, which Pel had bought the rights from Pollack.
Swarovski is an Austrian glass manufacturer. Daniel Swarovski founded the company in 1895. In 1895, he left Bohemia for the Austrian Tyrol. He established a factory in Wattens for the industrial production of cut crystal stones. From 1917 on, these stones were marketed as ‘Tyrolite,’ which is now the company’s industrial division.