The MARS Group, or Modern Architectural Research Group, was a British architectural think tank created in 1933 by numerous famous architects and architectural critics participating in the British modernist movement. The MARS Group was created after several prior but unsuccessful attempts to establish an organization to promote modernist architects in the United Kingdom, similar to organizations created in continental Europe, such as France’s Union des Artistes Modernes.
Bentwood furniture was not invented by Michael Thonet (1798-1871), but he perfected a method for mass production. In 1819, in Boppard, Germany, he opened his cabinetmaking business, and by 1840 he had invented the steam-softening technique for bending rods of hardwood into flowing yet structurally solid shapes. There are just six sections and screws in his all-time classic, Model No.14.
The universal typeface, 1925, was a geometric alphabet based on bar and circle and was designed by Herbert Bayer (1900) to function efficiently in a technological society. Bayer rejected the “archaic and complicated gothic alphabet” which lingered in the most scientifically advanced society of its time, Germany of the first world war period and the postwar era.
The Festival of Britain (FOB) was seen both as a public morale booster and an opportunity to remind the world of Britain’s contribution to civilisation, history, and technological development in the past, present, and future. It took place on the South Bank of the River Thames. The Council of Industrial Design (COID) provided an essential stage for promoting well-designed British products in its national push for economic recovery in the post-Second World War era, especially on the main South Bank, London, more specifically in terms of design.
The Worshipful Company of Goldsmiths, also known as the Goldsmiths’ Company, is one of London’s Great Twelve Livery Companies. It is correctly known as The Wardens and Commonalty of the Mystery of Goldsmiths of the City of London. The Company’s headquarters are located in the City of London’s Goldsmiths’ Hall.
Ray Komai was a Japanese American; he was a graphic, industrial and interior designer. He studied in Los Angeles at the Art Center College.
He settled in New York in 1944, where he worked in advertising and set up a graphic design and advertising office (with Carter Winter). J.G. Furniture created Komai’s 1949 moulded plywood chair with a split seat and bent metal legs. They produced his other designs of chairs, tables and upholstered seating as well.
He set up his architecture practice in New York in 1905 and, after visiting the 1925 Paris ‘Exposition Internationale des Arts Decoratifs et Industriels Modernes.’ He began offering interior design services. In 1931, he became a professor of interior architecture at New York University. He sold his own and imported textiles and furniture and Maurice Heaton’s glassware in the gallery he established.
THE MOTHER OF INTERIOR DESIGN
She is noted for helping to open the field of interior design to women, supporting craftswomen, and for encouraging a new style of American design.
He set up his workshop at 12 rue Saint-Bernard in Paris, where he produced cabinets, rugs, drawings, and paintings. In 1930, he rendered the interior scheme of the boudoir of the Princesse de la Tour d’Auvergne in the Château de Grosbois, the private office of Jeanne Lanvin, the reception salon of Field Marshal Lyautey, and the arrangement of the Musée de la France d’Outre-Mer on the occasion of the 1931 Paris ‘Exposition Coloniale.
Throughout the twentieth century, ceramics was broadly divided into two sectors. Studio pottery, which was a reaction against the mass-made wares of the industrial revolution, and fine art by contemporary artists, who just happened to use clay in their practice but rejected many of its traditional codes of practice.
Vlastislav Hofman (1884 – 1964) was a Czech architect, designer and artist. He studied at the Czech Technical University. He worked in the building department of the Prague magistrate. He was a member of the Artel Cooperative and Mánes Association of Plastic Artists. In 1911 he left Mánes and joined the group of plastic artists. He wrote a number of theoretical articles for magazines. In 1912, he left the group and returned to Mánes.
Shoji Hamada, along with Bernard Leach, was one of the key figures in the development of studio pottery in the 20th century. His influence both in England and the US as well as in his native Japan cannot be underestimated.
Richard Josef Neutra (1892 – 1970) was an Austrian American artist and designer. He was born in Vienna and lived in Los Angeles and southern California for much of his life.
Between the wars, Teige was a prominent figure in Czech art and architecture. He was the editor of many avant-garde magazines, including Disk, Stavba, and ReD, and wrote about photography.
He worked at Olivetti, where he designed office machinery, starting in 1956. He collaborated with Hans Von Klier on C. Castelli’s corporate design program. He was designing dictating machines for Süd-Atlas Werke in Monaco and electronic apparatus and control systems for Praxis in Milan.
Dru Drury (4 February 1724 – 15 December 1803) was a British collector of natural history specimens and an entomologist. He had samples collected from across the world through a network of ship’s officers and collectors, including Henry Smeathman.