The New Objectivity (in German: Neue Sachlichkeit) was a movement in German art that arose during the 1920s as a reaction against expressionism.
Neue Sachlichkeit was a term coined in 1923 by Gustav Hartlaub, director of the Kunsthalle, Mannheim, as the title of an exhibition he organised to demonstrate the progress of post-war painting in Germany. Instead of being abstract, such art was figurative and was marked by a world-weary cynicism without the idealistic expectations of many pre-war movements. Otto Dix and Georg Grosz were its most prominent exponents. In the 1930s, Neue Sachlichkeit was denigrated and swept away by the ideologically inspired art of National Socialism.
Clarke, M. (2010). The concise dictionary of art terms. Oxford University Press.
More on the History of Design
Formes Utiles – French Organisation and Exhibitions
In 1949, Formes Utiles became an independent association of UAM (Union des Artistes Modernes) through the influence of René Herbst and Charlotte Perriand and its first exhibition held at Musée des Arts Décoratifs, Paris. Its theoretician was architect André Hermant.
Silver and twentieth-century design
The impact of silver metal technology has driven the development of modern furnishings throughout the 20th century. The transformation of a chair into a sculptural statement, for example. Interior metal objects have not always been at the forefront of modern design within a multi-function. With the emphasis on warmth and comfort in the home, the scope for a wide range of metal products for this domain is not there.
William Caxton (1422 – 1491) Father of English Printing
William Caxton learned about the mystery of printing in the Low Countries, and it was in Bruges that he translated a French work, ” The Tales of Troy, ” through his printing press.
Hermann Gretsch (1895 – 1950) designer for Arzberg
Hermann Gretsch was a German architect, engineer and product designer. In the 1930s, Gretsch worked for the Porzellanfabrik Arzberg.
Worshipful Company of Goldsmiths
The Worshipful Company of Goldsmiths, also known as the Goldsmiths’ Company, is one of London’s Great Twelve Livery Companies. It is correctly known as The Wardens and Commonalty of the Mystery of Goldsmiths of the City of London. The Company’s headquarters are located in the City of London’s Goldsmiths’ Hall.
Aldus Manuitius (1449 – 1515) – pioneer of printing
The type in which this sentence is written is called “italic”. Aldus Manutius the man who invented it died almost 500 years ago and his type is still in use. Today publishing a manuscript is almost instantaneous, a new best seller can be placed on Amazon and I can buy a copy minutes later. To look at the books which came off the Venitian presses of Aldus Manutius is a strange experience.
The 40s and 50s – On the Road with Design
The exaggerated style was an essential look. The gleaming chrome fins conveyed speed. A car that was higher in the front than the back did the same. The quality of the car’s face — two headlamps for the eyes, a grill for the nose, and a fender for the mouth – was frequently highlighted. This gave the vehicle the appearance of a devoted companion with a distinct personality.
Paris and Art in 1950s – influence on design
Paris, newly liberated from the German occupation, sprung to life during the 1950s as a centre for all modes of artistic endeavour, most notably in fine art, literature, and music. Its association with romantic literary figures such as Jean-Paul Sartre, Simone de Beauvoir, and Roland Barthes made the city incredibly appealing to every serious-minded man or woman.
The Schloss Blühnbach castle in Austria
Schloss Blühnbach is a hunting castle in the Austrian Alps dated from the 17th century. It was extended in 1911 by Archduke Francis Ferdinand; it also includes his art and antiques.
Taylorism was a search for industrial efficiency
His 1911 book Principles of Scientific Management outlined these concepts, and they have influenced various aspects of design, including labour-saving kitchens and more ergonomic household equipment. These included the writings of fellow American Christine Frederick, who published Scientific Management in the Home in 1915, and Lillian Gilbreth’s assessments of domestic efficiency for the Brooklyn Gas Company in 1930, which looked at the kitchen as a location of industrial production.
A Century of Progress International Exposition – Chicago 1933 – 1934
An exhibition summary noted that the nation, “then still mired in the malaise of the Great Depression, could glimpse a happier not-too-distant future, all driven by innovation in science and technology.” Fair visitors saw the new wonders in rail travel, cars, architecture, and robots that smoke cigarettes. The Fair “emphasised technology and progress, a utopia, or perfect world, founded on democracy and manufacturing.”
Vorticism British Art Movement – 1914 – 1918
Vorticist painting merged cubist reality fragmentation with hard-edged imagery taken from machines and urban environments. It was essentially a British version of futurism, albeit with ideological distinctions. Lewis was a staunch opponent of the futurists. Lawrence Atkinson, Jessica Dismorr, Cuthbert Hamilton, William Roberts, Helen Saunders, Edward Wadsworth, and the sculptors’ Sir Jacob Epstein and Henri Gaudier-Brzeska were among the group’s other members.
Pre-Raphaelites Brotherhood – British Artists Group
The Pre-Raphaelites were a group of British artists. Dante Gabriel Rossetti and Edward Burne-Jones led the Pre-Raphaelite brotherhood from 1848.
The Wit and Humour of the Gibigiana Table Lamp
Castiglioni’s approach to design is characterised by wit and humour, which is portrayed here by a shape that resembles an animal or bird. The Gibigiana is a table light that may be adjusted. It includes a dimmer and produces reflected light.
During the 1920s Jaegar clothes not just fashion but function & lifestyle
During the twentieth century, a movement arose that advocated for clothing to be worn as part of a sensible, healthy lifestyle rather than only for fashion. These concepts sprang from the work of nineteenth-century fashion reformers, in the same way, that English writer Edward Carpenter popularised the open-toed leather sandal for men.
“Just in time” design concept
Just in time” design concept, this practice became an increasingly important aspect of economic manufacturing and distribution. The ability to link sales data from retail outlets and checkout terminals with centralised corporate manufacturing and distribution systems ‘just in time’ eliminated the need for manufacturer-retailers like Benetton, an Italian clothing company, to keep large amounts of stock on hand (thus wasting valuable space).
Japan Advertising Artists Club (JAAC) pioneer of Japanese Graphic Design
In the 1960s, the JAAC’s philosophy came under fire for being overly reliant on exhibitions as a platform for innovative ideas. Furthermore, during the turbulent 1960s, a perceived emphasis on aesthetics at the expense of social significance, combined with allegations of elitism, led to the organisation’s disbandment in 1970.
Linoleum created as an inexpensive floor covering
Frederick Walton invented linoleum in Britain in 1860. Walton coated flax cloth with a combination of gum, cork dust, resin and linseed oil in search of a cheap floor covering. An amalgamation of the Latin Linum (‘flax’) and oleum (‘oil’) formed the word linoleum.
Surrealism – Art & Design Term
Surrealism was one of the most influential and disruptive trends of the twentieth century, flourishing especially in the 1920s and 1930s and offering a radical contrast to Cubism’s rational and formal features. It emphasised the positive rather than the nihilistic, unlike Dada, from which it derived in many aspects. Surrealism aimed to gain access to the subconscious mind and convert this stream of thought into art.
ISOTYPE – International System of Typographic Picture Education
ISOTYPE was created as a mechanism of communicating statistics using graphic symbols. It was an essential part of Otto Neurath’s (1882–1945) worldwide graphic language, which he created in Vienna following World War I. Originally known as the Vienna Method of Pictorial Statistics, ISOTYPE was created to make complex statistical information about housing, health, education, and other vital priorities more understandable to the general public in the difficult economic and political circumstances of 1920s Vienna by presenting the data in a visually appealing format.
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