Maiolica is a tin-glazed earthenware that was produced during the Renaissance in Italy. The name comes from Majorca, the island from which, in the 15th century, a lot of Hispano-Moresque tin-glazed pottery was brought into Italy. The technique of covering with a tin glaze earthenware was similar to that used elsewhere in Europe for delftware and faience. The opaque white field set off the brilliance of the brightly coloured, pictorial decoration featuring maiolica. Many designs in this style of istoriato were based on prints from the Renaissance. Some of the finest pieces can be credited to specific artists. Castel Durante, Deruta, Faenza, Gubbio, Urbino and Venice were the major pottery of maiolica. Maiolica was replaced by porcelain and creamware in the 18th century, but it flourished in Castelli and the Genoa region.
Clarke, M. (2010). maiolica. In The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Art Terms. : Oxford University Press. Retrieved 24 Feb. 2021
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Ceramics are objects made of moistened clay, shaped and then baked. All ceramics are Earthenware, terracotta, brick, tile, faience, majolica, stoneware, and porcelain. Ceramicware is decorated with clay inlays, relief patterns on the surface, or incised, stamped or embossed designs. For coating, the ware, a creamy mixture of clay and water (slip) can be used.
Sgraffito is a scratched pottery decoration, first used in China, which spread across Europe via Persia. The vessel is immersed in slip, and then the decoration is scratched on the surface to reveal the darker body below. It was often used with maiolica from Italy.