The École nationale supérieure des arts décoratifs was instrumental in the emergence of the Art Deco design movement and the development of modern design trends in the 1920s. Animation, photography, scenography, industrial design, communication design, interactive design, film, interior design, fashion, textile, and engraving are among the subjects taught at the School.
One of the foremost universities in Vienna, Austria, is TU Wien (TUW; German: Technische Universität Wien; also known in English as the Vienna University of Technology from 1975–2014). The University has gained comprehensive international and domestic recognition in both teaching and science and is a highly respected partner of innovation-oriented enterprises.
After WWII, Ulm, Hochschule für Gestaltung, a forward-thinking West German institution, was closely associated with a more scientific, logical, and productive design approach. It shifted away from the traditional reliance on existing notions of the innovative individual designer’s dominance and towards a problem-solving approach to design that included the use of multidisciplinary expertise.