Haviland Limoges Porcelain
Haviland was a French porcelain factory. In 1843, American David Haviland founded the Haviland pottery in Limoges.
His son, Charles Haviland, served as director from 1866 to 1921. Flix Bracquemond established a research studio in Auteuil, close to Paris, where designs for the Limoges factory—which produced faience and fine and soft-paste porcelain—were created. The production of barbotine decorations with artwork painted by the studio’s artists or independent painters and sculptors began in Auteuil in 1875 by Ernest Chaplet. Due to poor sales, these vases were eliminated. Bracquemond left Auteuil in 1881, and Chaplet left shortly after. On rue Blomet and rue Vaugirard, Chaplet opened a studio in Haviland. Under Jochum, the Auteuil studio continued creating decorations for Limoges-made porcelain until 1914.
Haviland – a thriving industrial business
David Haviland did not know how to make china when he first arrived in the Limousin region and could not speak French. However, he visited several factories and picked out specific pieces of china to send back to the United States and sell in his brother’s shop. Because they were so well received by the public, he could purchase his machinery to produce china that would appeal to American consumers.
As a result of his success, David decided to keep making his china and to have this “plain” china decorated in line with his preferences. Between 1842 and 1853, French porcelain exports to the United States increased thanks to David’s efforts, going from 753 to 8594 parcels. The Haviland Company participated in the New York World’s Fair in 1853 and took home a medal. The company was able to make sizable investments thanks to its huge profits and solid market position in America, which would allow them to produce its china quite independently.
Adverse effects of the Civil War (1861–65) on business. The company had to temporarily halt all of its operations, including constructing a new factory because almost all of its products were sold in the United States. Instead, they waited until the situation improved. Due to the Haviland Brothers’ bankruptcy, the Limousin region factory was left on its own.
The French company Haviland et Compagnie (H et Cie)was officially founded on the 1st of March 1864.
Haviland – Post-US Civil War
Théodore (1842-1929) was sent to the United States after the war. Even though he was only 23 years old, he was a skilled businessman who created a very effective sales network. The goods produced by his company were so well-liked that the Limoges factory could not keep up with demand. The export rate was 2872 crates in 1867; by 1870, it had increased to 4767; by 1872, it had reached its peak at 5500; in other words, it had doubled in size in just five years. It was then relatively safe to begin making purchases of new machinery. The factory had six kilns in 1870, and coal was used to heat them for the first time. This was a more contemporary method that produced better results.
The family clung tenaciously to its religious convictions. The first generations of the Haviland family were not particularly involved in their local parish (Limoges) due to the absence of Quaker communities in France, despite making financial contributions. However, it was a very different story regarding their employees’ welfare; in this regard, they were comparable to other industrialists who were protestants. They established a special fund to aid soldiers, and their families in 1870, followed by a mutual support fund, an association that allowed employees to access what we now refer to as social housing, and a programme for kids’ vacations called A Key to the Countryside.
Finally, the independence of mind and respect for family conventions explain their membership in this particular branch of Protestantism.
Media library – Musée protestant. (n.d.). Musée Protestant. https://museeprotestant.org/en/mediatheque/